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Best IAS And KAS Coaching Centre In Bangalore Government of India and World Bank sign a loan agreement for Neeranchal National Watershed Project The Government of India signed a loan agreement with World Bank here for the Neeranchal National Watershed Project. The Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), which commenced from the year 2009-10, is an ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme supporting watershed development in 28 states, following the Common Guidelines for Watershed Development Projects – 2008 (Revised 2011). The IWMP is delivered by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) through the Department of Land Resources (DOLR) at the national level, and through dedicated State Level Nodal Agencies (SLNA) set up for this purpose, in the States. The project to be implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development over a six-year period (2016-21) will support the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana in hydrology and water management, agricultural production systems, capacity building and monitoring and evaluation. The total cost of the project is Rs. 2142.30 crore of which the Government’s share is Rs. 1071.15 crore (50 percent) and rest is the loan component from the World Bank. Why Neeranchal? For achieving the major objectives of the Watershed Component of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana (PMKSY) For ensuring access to irrigation to every farm (Har Khet Ko Pani) and efficient use of water (Per Drop More Crop). Bring about institutional changes in watershed and rainfed agricultural management practices in India. Devise strategies for the sustainability of improved watershed management practices in programme areas, even after the withdrawal of project support. Support improved equity, livelihoods, and incomes through forward linkages, on a platform of inclusiveness and local participation. The programme will lead to reducing surface runoff of rainwater, increasing recharge of ground water and better availability of water in rainfed areas resulting in incremental rainfed agriculture productivity, enhanced milk yield and increased cropping intensity through better convergence related programmes in project area. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana: Central scheme that aims at providing irrigation facilities to every village in the country by converging ongoing irrigation schemes implemented by various ministries. Scheme envisages: Ensure access to some means of protective irrigation to all agricultural farms in the country in order to produce ‘per drop more crop’ to bring desired rural prosperity. Flexibility and autonomy: to states in the process of planning and executing irrigation projects in order to ensure water to every farm. Irrigation plans: ensure that state and district irrigation plans are prepared on the basis of sources of availability of water and agro-climatic conditions in that region. Promoting extension activities: related to ‘on farm water management and crop alignment’ for farmers as well as grass root level field functionaries. Agencies involved: nodal agency for implementation of PMKSY projects will be state agriculture department. Inter-ministerial National Steering Committee (NSC) will periodically review these projects. Budgetary allocation: 1, 000 crore rupees for fiscal year 2015-16. Funding Pattern: Centre- States will be 75: 25 per cent. In case of north-eastern region and hilly states it will be 90:10.
The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation and the Ministry of Agriculture have been renamed he Department of Agriculture and Cooperation and the Ministry of Agriculture have been renamed as the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare (DAC& FW) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare respectively. With a view to focus on the issues of farmers welfare, the DAC& FW has created a separate Division called ‘Farmers Welfare’ under the charge of a senior officer. Some of the important new initiatives in this context are: 1.Soil Health Card (SHC) scheme: Soil Health Card Scheme is a scheme launched by the Government of India in February 2015. Under the scheme the government plans to issue Soil card to farmers which will carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilisers required for the individual farms to help farmers to improve productivity through judicious use of inputs. All soil samples are be tested in various soil testing labs across the country. Thereafter the experts will analyse the strength and weaknesses (micro-nutrients deficiency) of the soil and suggest measures to deal with it. The result and suggestion will be displayed in the cards. The Government plans to issue the cards to 14 crore farmers. 2 .Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY): Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (Traditional Farming Improvement Programme) has been launched by Government of India to support and promote organic farming and thereby improving soil health. This will encourage farmers to adopt eco-friendly concept of cultivation and reduce their dependence on fertilizers and agricultural chemicals to improve yields. 3. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY): The NDA government has launched the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana, which heavily borrows from the Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme; but tries to replace the fragmented approach with an integrated approach aiming at convergence of investments in irrigation. 4. New National Crop Insurance Scheme: Agricultural Insurance in India is covered by “National Crop Insurance Programme” which was launched by UPA government in 2013 by merging three schemes viz. Modified National Agricultural insurance Scheme (MNAIS), Weather Based Crop insurance Scheme (WBCIS) and Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme (CPIS). These three schemes now serve as components of the NCIP. National Crop Insurance Programme provides financial support to farmers for losses in their crop yield, to help in maintaining flow of agricultural credit, to encourage farmers to adopt progressive farming practices and higher technology in Agriculture and thereby, to help in maintaining production, employment & economic growth. 5. National Food Security Mission (NFSM); NFSM) is a Central Scheme of GOI launched in 2007 for 5 years to increase production and productivity of wheat, rice and pulses on a sustainable basis so as to ensure food security of the country. The aim is to bridge the yield gap in respect of these crops through dissemination of improved technologies and farm management practices. 6.Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH); A Centrally Sponsored Scheme of MIDH has been launched for the holistic development of horticulture in the country during XII plan. The scheme, which has taken take off from 2014-15, integrates the ongoing schemes of National Horticulture Mission, Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States, National Bamboo Mission, National Horticulture Board, Coconut Development Board and Central Institute for Horticulture, Nagaland. 7.National Mission on Oilseeds & Oil Palm (NMOOP); The mission would help in boosting the production of oilseeds by 6.58 million tonnes and will bring additional area of 1.25 lakh hectares under oil palm cultivation. In addition to this, it would also lead to an enhancement in productivity of fresh fruit bunches to 15, 000 kg/ha from 4927 kg/ha and increase in collection of tree borne oilseeds to 14 lakh tonne. It would increase production of vegetable oil sources by 2.48 million tonnes from oilseeds (1.70 MT), oil palm (0.60 MT) and tree borne oilseeds (0.18 MT) by the end of the 12th Plan period. NMOOP is inspired by the accomplishments of the existing schemes of Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Oil Palm and Maize, Tree Borne Oilseeds Scheme and Oil Palm Area Expansion programme implemented during the 11th Plan period. 8. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA); Under the National Action Plan on Climate Change, India has launched a dedicated National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) to define its strategies for climate mitigation and adaptation within the agriculture sector. Emission by Agriculture Sector: Agriculture is responsible for around 14% of global emissions. If the emissions from the agriculture are combined with the emissions caused by deforestation for farming, fertilizer manufacturing and agricultural energy use, this sector becomes the largest contributor to global emissions. In India, the agriculture sector accounts for 17.6% of total emissions. At the same time, it consumes some one fourth of the electricity, so, it is indirectly responsible for another 10% of the GHG emissions. When we combine these figures with the fertilizer industries, catering solely to agriculture, and use of diesel, we find that agriculture is the largest contributor of GHG in India. So there is a need that the farm sector is given priority in India’s climate mitigation strategy. 9. National Mission on Agricultural Extension & Technology (NMAET); National Mission on Agricultural Extension and Technology (NIMAET) is a new 12th Plan programme approved by outgoing UPA Government in February 2014 with an objective to spread farm extension services and mechanization. This mission has four sub-missions as under: Sub Mission on Agricultural Extension (SMAE) Sub-Mission on Seed and Planting Material (SMSP) Sub Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM) Sub Mission on Plant Protection and Plant Quarantine (SMPP) The common thread that runs across all four sub-missions is extension and technology; the four sub-missions are proposed for administrative convenience. The entire plan period outlay for this scheme is Rs. 13073.08 crore, with Government of India’s share of Rs. 11390.68 crore and State share of Rs.1682.40 crore. This scheme aims to bring maximum possible farmers within the ambit of cost effective and remunerative mechanized farming for improved productivity and sustainable farm growth in the country. It also covers seed production and plant protection along with strengthening regulatory framework for management of pesticides and plant quarantine. 10. Unified National Agriculture Markets; The National Agriculture Market (NAM) is envisaged as a pan-India electronic trading portal which seeks to network the existing Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMCs) and other market yards to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities. NAM is a “virtual” market but it has a physical market (mandi) at the back end. 11. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY). Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana is a special Additional Central Assistance Scheme which was launched in August 2007 to orient agricultural development strategies, to reaffirm its commitment to achieve 4 per cent annual growth in the agricultural sector during the 11th plan. The scheme was launched to incentivize the States to provide additional resources in their State Plans over and above their baseline expenditure to bridge critical gaps. The RKVY covers all sectors such as Crop Cultivation, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, Dairy Development, Agricultural Research and Education, Forestry and Wildlife, Plantation and Agricultural Marketing, Food Storage and Warehousing, Soil and Water Conservation, Agricultural Financial Institutions, other Agricultural Programmes and Cooperation. Incentivize the States RKVY is a State Plan Scheme. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): As per data on sector-wise Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows maintained by the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP), Government of India, during April 2000 to June 2015, FDI inflows in the agriculture services has been US $ 1763.57 Million (i.e. Rs.8747.4 crore) which is higher than the FDI inflows into sectors like textiles, mining and electronics. However, FDI inflows in the agriculture services during the above period has been lower as compared to computer software & hardware, telecommunications, automobiles etc. In agriculture machinery, FDI inflows during the above period has been US $ 418.65 million. To attract more FDI in agriculture sector, 100% FDI has been allowed in coffee, rubber, cardamom, palm oil tree and olive oil tree plantations, besides tea plantation in which FDI has already been allowed.
NHAI approves greenbelt along National Highways NHAI(National Highways Authority of India )has approved a pilot project submitted by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur for undertaking scientific studies on designing greenbelts along national highways. The project will be implemented on a 5 km stretch on NH-7 between Jam and Hinganghat in Nagpur region at an estimated cost of Rs.11.80 crore . Around 20, 000 trees of scientifically chosen species are proposed to be planted on both sides of this stretch in multiple rows. Work activities have been delineated considering two major factors : (a) Highway requirement and objectives Traffic frequency Available space Soil type Water availability Climatic conditions Anthropogenic interference (b) Plant characteristics to fit in the site requirement Height Canopy cover Air pollution Tolerance Index Sociability The project will run for 5 years, and during this period various experiments will be conducted in NEERI laboratory to record the impact of greenbelt development. Besides developing greenbelt, the project will also assist in developing relevant research infrastructure that may be used for similar studies in future. The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is an autonomous agency of the Government of India, responsible for management of a network of over 70, 000 km of National Highways in India. It is a nodal agency of the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. The chairman of NHAI is Raghav Chandra, IAS. The NHAI was created through the promulgation of the National Highways Authority of India Act, 1988. A 2012 report prepared by the World Bank’s Institutional Integrity Unit alleged that fraudulent and corrupt practices were being followed by Indian contractors working on national highway projects funded by it, and sought a thorough investigation into the matter. The report also alleged that contractors paid bribes and gifts, including gold coins, to “influence the actions” of officials and consultants of the National Highways Authority of India.
President presents APJ Abdul Kalam Ignite Awards to students Presenting the APJ Abdul Kalam Ignite Awards 2015 at the Indian Institute of Management – Ahmedabad (IIM-A), President Pranab Mukherjee on Monday lauded the innovative thinking school students exhibited through their works. What is the contest? IGNITE is an annual national competition to harness the creative and innovative spirit of school children. Students are invited to send their original creative technological ideas and innovations for the same. Why the contest? Creativity among children is almost in-born, every child is creative, degrees may vary, but not the basic manifestation. To promote originality, creativity and innovative spirit among our children so that when they become leaders of our society, they ensure an imaginative, inclusive and an innovative future for the country. Original creative technological ideas and innovations of the students OR/AND Any technological idea/innovation that solves any daily problem be it household, of porters, labourers, or the like. In addition, during their vacations or otherwise, the students are encouraged to look for other people who come out with innovative machines/devices or solve day to day problems using their creativity. Similarly they are also encouraged to document and learn traditional knowledge practices from their elders in their family and neighbourhood. The purpose is to expose them to the rich traditional heritage we have, facilitating its transfer from generation to generation. The students submitting the maximum number of properly documented entries (Innovations/Traditional Knowledge) to the schools (which would forward them to NIF) or directly to NIF would be given appreciation certificates from NIF. For each innovation/traditional knowledge practice spotted and documented by the student, he/she will be credited as being the ‘Scout’ for that particular innovation/traditional knowledge in records.
Best IAS And KAS Coaching Centre In Bangalore One lakh migratory birds arrive at Pong Dam lake Nearly one lakh migratory birds have reached in manmade Maharana Pratap Sagar Lake or Pong Dam. Most of these birds migrate every year to this lake in the month of October and continue to arrive till February. These birds fly from trans-Himalaya region of Tibet, Central Asia, Russia and Siberia. This time also birds like Bar Headed Geese, Pintail and Common Pochard in thousands can be seen flying over the lake area. Maharana Pratap Sagar, also known as Pong Reservoir or Pong Dam Lake was created in 1975, by building the highest earthfill dam in India on the Beas River in the wetland zone of the Siwalik Hills of the Kangra district of the state of Himachal Pradesh. The reservoir or the lake is a well-known wildlife sanctuary and one of the 25 international wetland sites declared in India by the Ramsar Convention. The Pong Reservoir and Gobindsagar Reservoir are the two most important fishing reservoirs in the Himalayan foothills of Himachal Pradesh. The entire reservoier is declared as a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1986 by the Himachal Pradesh government The reservoir is bounded by the rugged Dhauladhar mountain range, the low foothills of the Himalaya on the northern edge of the Indo-Gangetic plains, and the mountain streams cutting through valleys. Pong Dam Lake was declared a Ramsar Wetland site on account of its rich waterfowl diversity for conservation and sustainable use of the wetland. It has attracted migratory birds from the plains of India and Central Asian countries and Siberia. The reservoir peripheral land area has mixed perennial and deciduous pine forests on hills. Eucalyptus trees have also been grown in the area. A 5-kilometre (3.1 mi) belt from the periphery of the lake has been declared as buffer zone for the management of the bird sanctuary. What is Ramsar Convention? The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value. A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetationof aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil The convention was developed and adopted by participating nations at a meeting in Ramsar, Mazandaran, Iran, on February 2, 1971, hosted by the Iranian Department of Environment, and came into force on December 21, 1975. The country with the highest number of Sites is the United Kingdom at 170. The state parties meet every three years as the Conference of the Contracting Parties (COP). The Ramsar Convention works closely with five other organisations known as International Organization Partners (IOPs). These are Birdlife International, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Wetlands International and WWF International.
Best IAS & KAS Coaching Centre in Bangalore Confusion over sand-mining norms in Kerala sparks concern A notification issued by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change prescribing regulations on river sand mining is feared to result in a mismatch with the Kerala State legislation on the issue. What does the central notification mandates? District Environment Impact Assessment Authority empowered to issue environmental clearance for sand mining below five hectares. It prescribes guidelines for the preparation of a district survey report to identify river sand resources, protection of the riverine ecology and steps to check illegal mining. It mandates to establish District expert appraisal committee to screen projects . Must have no representatives of local bodies. Submission of district survey report every 5 years once. Use of technology aided system for monitoring illegal mining. What does the Kerala Protection of River Banks and Regulation of Removal of Sand Act, 2001 mandates? District-level expert committees chaired by the respective District Collectors have been constituted to check illegal mining. The State government had imposed a total ban on sand mining from six rivers and imposed restrictions on mining from five rivers for a three-year period. It has local representatives . Submission of the sand audit report for every 5 years. River management fund for management of river bank. Penalty of up to two years imprisonment with fine . Extraction of ordinary sand, removal of sand deposits from farms and silt from dams and reservoirs are the activities that have been exempted. Experts and environmental activists fear: This confusion would create a situation for illegal mining to flourish in the State. It is neither necessary nor desirable to have a district expert committee set up under the State Act and a District EIA Authority mandated by the Central notification, both chaired by the District Collector. It will only lead to confusion and conflict. Exemptions cited in the notification would be manipulated to bypass the requirement of environment clearance for river sand mining.
Best IAS And KAS Coaching Centre In Bangalore The Supreme Court said: No temple or governing body can bar a woman from entering the famous Sabarimala shrine in Kerala where lakhs of devotees throng annually to worship. When the Devaswom Board countered that the prohibition was based on custom followed for the past half century, court asked what proof the Board had to show that women did not enter the sanctum sanctorum over 1500 years ago. Court observed that the Constitution rejects discrimination on the basis of age, gender and caste. The petition filed by the Indian Young Lawyers Association and five women lawyers seeking a direction to allow entry of women into the Sabarimala Ayyappa temple without age restriction. Women in the age group 10-50 are not allowed entry. The apex court had issued notice in the case way back in 2006. The petition had contended that women, aged between 10 and 50, touching the idol was considered an act of desecration. Backthen: An attempt was made to prosecute Kannada actor Jaimala on the plea of desecration following her disclosure that she entered the sanctum sanctorum and touched the idol in 1987. The priests conducted a special ritual to purify the idol. The Kerala High Court dismissed the charges filed by police in the controversial Sabarimala “astrological finding” case, which included Kannada actress Jaimala among the accused in 2012. The ban was enforced under Rule 3 (b) of the Kerala Hindu Places of Public Worship (Authorisation of Entry) Rules, 1965 It states “women at such time during which they are not by custom and usage allowed to enter a place of public worship”. The Kerala High Court had upheld the ban in 1991 and directed the Devaswom Board to implement it. The petition contended that discrimination in matters of entry into temples was neither a ritual nor ceremony associated with Hindu religion. Such discrimination was totally anti-Hindu. The religious denomination could only restrict entry into the sanctum sanctorum and could not ban entry into the temple, making a discrimination on the basis of sex. It had sought quashing of the Rule contending that the ban was violative of Articles 14 (equality before law), 25 and 26 (freedom of religion) of the Constitution. They wanted guidelines laid down in matters of gender inequality in religious practices at places of worship. About Sabarimala: It is a Hindu pilgrimage centre located at the Periyar Tiger Reserve in the Western Ghat mountain ranges of Pathanamthitta District, Perunad grama panchayat in Kerala. It is one of the largest annual pilgrimages in the world, with an estimated over 100 million devotees visiting every year. Sabarimala is believed to be the place where the Hindu god Ayyappanmeditated after killing the powerful demoness Mahishi. Sabarimala is linked to Hindu pilgrimage, predominantly for men of all ages. Females who menstruate (usually between the ages of approximately 12 and 50) are not allowed to enter the temple, since the story attributed to Ayyappa prohibits the entry of the women in the menstrual age group. This is because Ayyappan is a Bramhachari (celibate). Administration and legal duties is managed by Travancore Devasvom Board, an affiliate authority of Government of Kerala.
Best IAS And KAS Coaching Centre In Bangalore Somnath Temple to invest in Gold Monetisation Scheme Somnath Temple Trust is all set to become first temple from Gujarat to deposit its idle gold in the Gold Monetization Scheme. The trust has around 35 kilo grams of gold and will deposit the gold which is not in day-to-day use of the temple. Prime Minister Narendra Modi is also a trustee of the Somnath Temple Trust. The management will segregate the pure gold from the whole lot to finalise the quantum of gold which can be deposited. Somanath temple: The Somnath temple located in Prabhas Patan near Veraval in Saurashtra on the western coast of Gujarat, India, is the first among the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines of Shiva. Somnath Temple is known as “the Shrine Eternal”. This legendary temple has been destroyed and rebuilt several times by Islamic kings and Hindu kings respectively. Most recently it was rebuilt in November 1947, when Vallabhbhai Patel visited the area for the integration of Junagadh and mooted a plan for restoration. The present temple is built in the Chalukya style of temple architecture or “Kailash Mahameru Prasad” style. The temple is situated at such a place that there is no land in a straight line between Somnath seashore until Antarctica. What is Gold Monetisation Scheme (GMS)? 1.It replaces the existing Gold Deposit Scheme, 1999. 2.The deposits outstanding under the Gold Deposit Scheme will be allowed to run till maturity unless the depositors prematurely withdraw them. 3.Any Resident Indians can make deposits under the scheme. 4. The minimum deposit at any one time shall be raw gold equivalent to 30 grams of gold. 5.There is no maximum limit for deposit under the scheme. 6.The gold will be accepted at the Collection and Purity Testing Centres (CPTC) . 7.The deposit certificates will be issued by banks in equivalent of 995 fineness of gold. 8.The designated banks will accept gold deposits under The Short Term (1-3 years) Bank Deposit (STBD) Medium (5-7 years) and Long (12-15 years) Term Government Deposit Schemes (MLTGD). 9.The The Short Term Bank Deposit (STBD) will be accepted by banks on their own account 10.The Medium and Long Term Government Deposit Schemes will be accepted on behalf of the Government of India. 11.There will be provision for premature withdrawal subject to a minimum lock-in period and penalty to be determined by individual banks for the STBD. 12.The interest rate in the STBD will be determined by the banks. 13.The interest rate in the medium term bonds has been fixed at 2.25% and for the long term bonds is 2.5% for the bonds issued in 2015-16. 14.The designated banks may sell or lend the gold accepted under STBD to MMTC for minting India Gold Coins (IGC) and to jewellers, or sell it to other designated banks participating in GMS. 15.The gold deposited under MLTGD will be auctioned by MMTC or any other agency authorised by the Central Government and the sale proceeds credited to the Central Government’s account with the Reserve Bank of India. 16.Earnings are exempt from capital gains tax, wealth tax and income tax. There will be no capital gains tax on the appreciation in the value of gold deposited, or on the interest you make from it. WHAT WILL THE BANKS DO WITH THE GOLD? The designated banks may sell or lend the gold accepted under the short-term bank deposit to MMTC for minting India Gold Coins and to jewellers, or sell it to other designated banks participating in the scheme.
Best IAS And KAS Coaching Centre In Bangalore India signs Financing Agreement with World Bank for US$ 250 million for Bihar Kosi Basin Development Project The Financing Agreement for World Bank (IDA) assistance of US$ 250 million for Bihar Kosi Basin Development Project was signed between Government of India and the World Bank. It is a loan for an implementation period of 5 years. Government of Bihar is the implementing agency. Objectives: To enhance resilience to floods and increase agricultural production and productivity in the targeted districts in the Kosi River Basin, and to enhance Bihar’s capacity to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency. Beneficiaries: The primary beneficiaries will be rural producers and households in the Kosi River Basin who are regularly exposed to floods. The project has five components: (i) Improving Flood Risk Management; (ii) Enhancing Agricultural Productivity and Competitiveness; (iii) Augmenting Connectivity; (iv) Contingent Emergency Response; (v) Implementation Support. The Kosi River drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in the Tibet Autonomous Region and the southern slopes in Nepal. Tributaries: The Tamur Koshi originating from the Kanchenjunga area in the east, Arun River from Tibet and Sun Koshi from the Gosainthan area farther west. The Sun Koshi’s tributaries from east to west are Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi, Tamba Koshi and Indravati Koshi. The koshi crosses into northern Bihar where it branches into distributaries before joining the Ganges near Kursela in Katihar district. Bihar flood: On 18 August 2008, the Kosi river picked up an old channel it had abandoned over 100 years previously near the border with Nepal and India. Approximately 2.7 million people were affected as the river broke its embankment at Kusaha in Nepal, submerging several districts of Nepal and India. 95% of the Koshi’s total flowed through the new course. The prime Minister of India declared it a national calamity. The Indian Army, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) and non-government organizations operated the biggest flood rescue operation in India in more than 50 years.
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